LeFort fractures

Maxillary fractures

LeFort I (Guèrin fracture)

Low horizontal fracture between maxilla and palate / alveolar arch complex. Can continue through pterygoid plates. Forms 30% of maxillary fractures.

LeFort II (pyramidal fracture)

Starts at nasal bones and crosses the frontal process of the maxilla and lacrimal bones. It descends through the floor of the orbit, infraorbital rim and laterally maxillary sinus wall. It often extends through the pterygoid plates, and forms 60% of maxillary fractures.

LeFort III (craniofacial dysjunction)

Relatively uncommon midface fracture. It passes through the nasal-frontal suture, frontal process of the maxilla, lacrimal bones, ethmoid sinus, and lamina papyracea before crossing the floor in the middle orbital fissure. Then it extends into three directions: (1) across the lateral orbital wall through the zygomaticofrontal suture; (2) through the zygomatic arch; and (3) through the pterygoid plates thereby creating a a separation of the midface from the skull base.


Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Ed. Ira D. Papel et al. Thieme, 2009.