ACC / AHA staging system

Heart failure

Stage A

Risk factors for heart failure are present but there are no structural cardiac abnormalities.

Stage B

Structural cardiac changes are present but patient is asymptomatic.

Stage C

Previous or current symptoms of heart failure with evidence of structural abnormality, but is able to be managed medically.

Stage D

Advanced disease requiring hospital-based support; consideration of either transplantation or palliative care is appropriate.


Manual of Heart Failure Management. Ed. John D. Bisognano, Mary Beth Earley. Springer, 2009.