Anand classification

Thoracic disc disease

Grade 1

Predominant thoracic central (axial) pain

Grade 2

Predominant thoracic radicular pain

Grade 3A

Significant axial and thoracic radicular pain

Grade 3B

Significant axial and lower leg pain with or without thoracic radicular pain

Grade 4

Myelopathy but not significant motor weakness

Grade 5

Paretic or paralytic (significant motor weakness)


Anand N, Regan JJ. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for thoracic disc disease: Classification and outcome study of 100 consecutive cases with a 2-year minimum follow-up period. Spine. 2002 Apr. 15;27(8):871-879.